On the plateau, between the two peaks of the mountain, in the V-IV century BC, stood the ancient city of Segesta.
Of this city today we can still visit the Temple and the Theater.
The Doric temple, a magnificent structure in an outstanding position, ennobles the surroundings. For the remarkable artistic quality and stylistic features, the temple can be dated in the last three decades of the V century, between 430 and 420 BC.
The theater is located higher up, on the northern slope of Mount Barbaro. Quite well preserved, it has a cavea (auditorium) of about 63 meters in diameter, partly cut in the same rock, and partly built and supported by a wall with blocks of limestone. The upper part of the auditorium, now lost, was once surrounded and supported by a massive semicircular wall. Under the auditorium there is a cave, called sacred, where they carried out, perhaps, rites.
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